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MONITORING HD-TVI, IP

Monitoring objektov

Monitoring školy
Ciele monitoringu v škole
Trestné činy, ktorým sú vystavení študenti a ostatní pracovníci škôl sú: krádeže odevov rôzneho druhu alebo iných vecí osobnej potreby, šikanovanie a zastrašovanie mladších žiakov ich staršími rovesníkmi. Čoraz častejšie dochádza aj k surovým potýčkam a priestupkom spojených s omamnými látkami, ktoré čoraz frekventovanejšie prenikajú do rúk študentov.
Je potrebné si uvedomiť, že seba lepšie výchovné prostriedky tento problém nevyriešia, účinným redukčným prostriedkom môže byť kamerový systém.
Situácie zachytené a zaznamenané kamerovým systémom môžu byť často jediným dôkazom škodlivej činnosti, keď sa svedkovia takýchto situácií ne chcú
Schéma monitoringu školy
Riešenie
Je potrebné si uvedomiť, že vzhľadom na charakter a veľkosť objektu (veľký počet miestností, rozľahlý a priestranný priestor monitorovania) ako aj na finančne obmedzené rozpočty týchto inštitúcií, náš monitoring bude mať názorný charakter. Len v niekoľkých miestach bude možné podrobná identifikácia osôb, napr. čŕt tváre, atď.
Čo a ako monitorovať?
Predovšetkým musíme monitorovať všetky možné vstupy do priestorov budovy školy. Tu je potrebné prevádzkovať taký monitoring, aby bolo možné jednoznačne identifikovať vstupujúce osoby. Takýto monitoring zabezpečujú kamery umiestnené v blízkej vzdialenosti od vstupu, alebo kamery so širokouhlým objektívom (dlhé ohnisko - teleobjektív), ktorých obraz bude možné nasmerovať a priblížiť priamo na vstupné dvere. Takéto riešenie nám dá pevnosť, že na zázname budeme mať detailnú obrazovú informáciu o možnom narušiteľovi.
Nasledujúcimi miestami, kde je vhodné nainštalovať kamery sú chodby a šatne. Zvlášť na týchto miestach by mali byť kamery umiestnené čo najvyššie. Z jednej strany
Vzhľadom na charakter priestorov (chodba je obvykle dlhá a úzka) je potrebné použiť viacero kamier, namiesto jednej. Teda, je vhodné umiestniť kamery tak, aby každá z nich mala druhú kameru vo svojom zornom uhle (napr. na dvoch protiľahlých koncoch chodby). Týmto zvyšujeme šancu na odhalenie vinníka možného poškodenia jednej z kamier.
Najviac diskutovaným miestom monitorovania sú toalety. Mali by sa tieto miesta monitorovať? Z pohľadu riaditeľov škôl sú práve tieto miesta ohniskom väčšiny chuligánstva a šikanovania. Rovnako sú toalety využívané ako priestory pre zakázané cigarety.
Na základe vyššie uvedených argumentov sa predstavitelia škôl rozhodujú nasadiť kamery aj na toalety. Dohľad je realizovaný tak, že monitorovaná je celá miestnosť, bez bezprostredného sledovania vnútra záchodových kabínok. Takýto monitoring spĺňa všetky predpoklady (je možné odhaliť fajčiara
V týchto miestnostiach sú montované kupolovité menšie kamery, napr. M10744 a M10746 (s IR prisvietením).
Vandal-proof Dome Camera: V-CAM 540 (550 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 4-9mm, IR)
Kupolovité kamery M10746 v ochrannom kryte typu ANTIVANDAL sú predurčené na využitie v priestoroch školy
Vandal-proof Dome Camera: V-CAM 540 (550 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 4-9mm, IR)
V-CAM 600 M10600 s nastavením pozorovacieho uhla

Posledným miestom, nad ktorým je vhodné sa zamyslieť pri inštalácií kamier, je priestor vôkol školy, t.j. ihriská, pieskoviská, parkoviská alebo iné miesta zvlášť vyhľadávané mladými ľuďmi (múriky za školou, zašité miesta, kde na nich nedohliadnu oči okoloidúcich a i.).
Vzhľadom na veľkú plochu monitorovania (ihrisko), prostredníctvom malého počtu kamier, plní monitoring v tejto situácii najčastejšie jedine funkciu monitoring názornú. Pri tomto type monitorovania nie je takmer žiadna možnosť na identifikáciu detailov (nebezpečný predmet v ruke žiaka, alebo detailný záznam poranenia hlavy pri športe niektorého zo žiakov a i.). Preto, je v tomto prípade veľmi dôležité využitie farebných kamier, spoločne s ich prednosťami identifikácie.
"Tajná zbraň"
Veľmi dôležitým prvkom každého monitoringu, hlavne pri dohľade tohto typu objektov, má psychologický aspekt. Už samotné uvedomenie si, že sa človek pohybuje v sledovanom priestore spôsobuje, že sa správa kultúrnejšie a premýšľa nad svojím konaním. Tento fakt je vhodné využiť na použitie atráp kamier, ktoré značne
---+++Poznámky týkajúce sa výberu a montáže kamier
As mentioned, color images ensure much better effects as regards identification of people.
On the other hand, B/W system is more sensitive, and simple to adapt for night observation.
Lower sensitivity of color cameras is usually not a problem for this kind of installations, where the space is illuminated during the night. The second demand, i.e. night observation, possible with B/W cameras due to their spectral-response characteristic and use of IR lamps enabling discreet viewing of dark areas, can also be easily realized with appropriate color cameras.
The suitable color cameras switch at dusk into B/W mode and gain sensitivity. So they may be used for monitoring with IR lighting, like the camera SN-486C, M11202. The cameras are ideal tools for surveillance of playgrounds, sports fields, parking lots etc.
Day/Night Box Camera: SN-BXC5930CDN (D-WDR, 650 TVL, Sony Effio-E, ICR, 0.03 lx)
Color day/night camera M11202 is an ideal device for outdoor applications.
Majority of offered cameras is equipped with electronic iris control, changing their sensitivity depending on current lighting conditions. The cameras are capable of working with moderately changing light, e.g. inside a building, with use of cheap lenses without regulated diaphragm. However, cameras operating outside a building should be equipped with lenses with Auto Iris function, allowing to obtain good quality images even in extremely changing lighting conditions, from sun expose to almost complete darkness.
Appearance and mounting of cameras
Due to character of monitored places (with young people having a lot of energy) the cameras may be exposed to accidental or intentional damages. To restrict direct access to a camera, it should be mounted as high as possible, with use of additional housing that will prevent anybody from manipulating the device. There should be employed solid brackets, insensitive to e.g. ball hit. The preferred kind is that made of metal and screwed, rather than the cheap, plastic cup-and-ball joint. In the case of ceiling dome cameras there should be chosen vandal-proof, high-impact polycarbonate casings.
Outdoor Camera Housing: Marathon MH-806/12Camera Bracket: Marathon MH-610 (for outdoor housings)Vandal-proof Dome Camera: V-CAM 412 (420 TVL, Sony Super HAD, 0.01 lx, 3.6mm, IR)Vandal-proof Dome Camera: V-CAM 412 (420 TVL, Sony CCD, 0.5 lx, 3.6mm) - CLEARANCE SALE!Vandal-proof Dome Camera: V-CAM 540 (550 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 4-9mm, IR)
When the camera is not mounted directly to the ceiling, it is required housing with hidden cable
Example of traditional housing - the cable can be easily cut
Signal distribution
Designing CCTV monitoring system, one has to choose the way of powering the system and transmitting of video signals.
Cameras may be supplied with DC12V, AC24V or AC 230V. Low voltages ensure high safety level, but it should be considered the voltage drop caused by long cables.
As regards video transmission, the traditional wired system ensures higher reliability and resistance to interferences. It is usually used special all-in-one CCTV cable, including coaxial cable for video and two additional wires for powering the equipment, e.g. M5995_100.
CCTV cable with two power wires
Selection of monitors and their locations
Monitor is usually installed in porter's lodge, often in staff room and front office of the school. It is important to choose monitors with adequate diagonal. When the monitor is to be used only occasionally, for review of registered material, it will be sufficient to employ 12"-15" screen. In case of live viewing by the operator and using screen division, there are preferred large screens, at least of 20".
Viewing and recording
Nowadays the standard way of recording video material is digital recording on hard discs. In case of educational institutions there are needed digital video recorders (DVRs) with many inputs, from 8 to 16. Modern DVRs allow data access in LAN or via the Internet - there may be chosen one of the models: M85075 - 8 channels, M8534, M8537 - 16 channels (the CPD-507 M8537 model is additionally equipped with DVD recorder).
Generally, it is recommended to employ 16-channel DVR, even if the number of cameras is currently lower.
ULTIMAX - the market leader in digital CCTV recording
Choosing a DVR it is important to think about the purpose of CCTV installation: quick access to reliable, quality recordings. DIPOL recommends ULTIMAX DVRs. Aside from 24-month warranty the user gets the opinion of the experts: a prestigious award of Intertelecom 2008 - Gold Medal for the Best Product.
The Gold Medal for the Best Product of Intertelecom 2008 for ULTIMAX-716 DVR
Depending on the series and model, there are available DVRs with different number of channels and various recording parameters. For use in schools we recommend DVRs of 3xx series (M73040, M73080, and M73160) offering unrivaled quality/price ratio, or more advanced models of 5xx series (M75040, M75080, M75160). To meet high requirements in some countries, it is indispensable to employ the top class DVRs of 7xx series (M77080, M77160). These DVRs are capable of recording video in D1 (4CIF) resolution (704x576) at 25 fps, from 8 or 16 cameras respectively, using hard drives of total capacity up to 16 TB.
All ULTIMAX DVRs perform advanced functions of:
  • motion detection - economical use of disc space
  • assigning access rights - up to 15 users
  • alarming in the case of video loss - tampering, covering the camera etc.
  • IP network operation - remote viewing, playback, notification etc.
In the case of large installations - when there is a need to install over 16 cameras - the next ULTIMAX DVRs will create a uniform system managed by ULTISYSTEM software. The images from any chosen cameras can be viewed on many client posts. ULTISYSTEM also allows to integrate ULTIMAX DVRs with city monitoring.
The DVRs use the latest video compression - H.264, both for recording and network transmission. They are easy to operate due to intuitive menu in English and comprehensive user's manual.
More on the ultra-modern equipment in:
ULTIMAX - the market leader in digital CCTV recording.
Network DVR: HIKVISION/ULTIMAX DS-8116HFI-S H.264 (16-ch.)
ULTIMAX-716 - the winner of the prestigious award - "Gold Medal of Intertelecom 2008"
for the best product
CCTV Network DVR: SIGNAL DL-8316 (H.264, 16ch-4CIF-25fps, HDMI)
SIGNAL DVRs M78308 and M78316 are capable of recording high resolution images at fast frame rates.
CCTV Network DVR: TREND 250X16 (H.264, 16 channels)
The TREND 250x16 M72516 DVR is an economical option for small schools.
Another popular way of video recording is provided by systems based on dedicated cards mounted in regular personal computers (PCs). They ensure high flexibility of CCTV system configuration and easy access via LAN or the Internet. The best choice is Geovision and Adacs
Digital surveillance systems based on PC cards cooperate with PCs fulfilling given specifications. There is needed process of installation, that is usually quite simple due to plug&play feature and user-friendly conception. It is important to check the system before connecting all devices in order to proof its stability.
The advantage of these systems is possibility of updating the software, just by loading its new versions which are usually successively available on the producer's web site. It allows to improve operation of the CCTV system and add new functions that are desirable by installers and users.
School surroundings: sports fields, playgrounds, parking lots etc.
Outdoor cameras are most often installed on street lamp posts. The posts enable easy access to AC230V power line - there may be used cameras directly powered from the 230V line, e.g. color camera M11134. Because of outdoor operation, the camera has to be put into appropriate housing with heater M54141. Lens with automatic iris control e.g. 2.8-12mm M2135 makes possible to avoid blinding the camera by car headlights. The proposed set will allow for effective twenty-four-hour and year-long monitoring of school surroundings.
Outdoor Camera Housing: Marathon MH-806/12
Camera Bracket: Marathon MH-610 (for outdoor housings)
Day/Night Box Camera: SN-BXC5930CDN (D-WDR, 650 TVL, Sony Effio-E, ICR, 0.03 lx)
CCTV Lens: JENSEN 2.8 - 12 mm DC F1.4
Marathon housing M5406
Marathon bracket M5142
Color day/night camera M11202
COMPUTAR lens M2137
Swimming-pools, kitchens and canteens (rooms with high humidity)
For this kind of rooms there have been designed cameras equipped with hermetic housings, compliant with IP 68, IP67 ingress protection ratings. Some of the cameras can even work in immersion up to 30m deep.
Other suitable models (color), M11233 and M11234, are prepared for work in high humidity, but not in water.
A limitation of the cameras is often a total ban on exchanging the original lenses - it would simply void the manufacturer's warranty. But such action will not be needed in 90% of cases - the original wide-angle lenses are just what is required.
Compact Outdoor Camera: Sunell SN-IRC4920AJ (day/night, D-WDR, 600 TVL, Sony Effio-E, 0.08 lx, 2.8-10mm, OSD, IR up to 40m)
Vandal Proof Camera: v-cam 500 (D-WDR, 650 TVL, Sony Effio-E, 0.15 lx)
Outdoor color camera M11279
Vandal proof color camera M10600
Corridors, cloakrooms and the gym
The cameras in these rooms may be exposed to temperature changes, dust and malicious actions of some students (e.g. changing direction of operation, or even trying to destroy the device). For that conditions, the ideal solution is provided by vandal-proof dome cameras, like color cameras M10744 and M10746, mounted directly to the ceiling or wall.
Vandal-proof Dome Camera: SN-FXP3200MIR (550 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, WDR, 0.1 lx, 2.8-11mm, IR)
Vandal-proof Dome Camera: V-CAM 412 (420 TVL, Sony Super HAD, 0.01 lx, 3.6mm, IR)
Vandal proof color camera M10744
Color camera with IR illuminator in vandal proof housing - M10746
The cameras are easy to mount and maintain - it is enough to wipe their domes. Due to closing of the camera and lens inside the dome, such camera ensures discrete observation - it is difficult to notice at the fist sight the direction and angle of observation. The cameras enable choice of lenses, so they may be adjusted to the job. It may be utilized e.g. in the case of monitoring long corridors, where large focal length of the lens will be indispensable for ensuring identification of persons.
Notice! It is always important to specify the needs and methods of their accomplishment in the designing process - 12 questions for those who plan to build a monitoring system:
A short CCTV guide for investors
Hybrid CCTV networks
Once unattainable, largely because of the high price, IP video surveillance becomes a regular solution. Although the system consisting only of IP cameras is still relatively expensive, the application of IP cameras in several key points, such as the main entrance (face identification), courtyard, parking lot (number plate recognition), is an investment that pays off.
The general recommendation is that hybrid network should be based on equipment and software from the same company. Both the DVRs and IP cameras from HIKVISION can be managed by a dedicated, high-quality software, which is described in the article Network applications for security systems and remote monitoring: iVMS4000, NVR Server, Stream Media Server - powerful and free. All these applications are free. The software library is designed for Windows. It can support up to 50 devices, which is completely sufficient even for the largest schools. The video data can be stored on the same computer that is used for managing the system and live monitoring, or on another, arbitrarily located server.
Summary
Installation of video surveillance system with recording capability in a school increases security levels, and improves working conditions for the staff and learning environment for the students. It lowers the number of excesses and minimizes devastation of school infrastructure, so it is very cost-effective venture. Simply it saves money that would be needed for repairs and renovations and this way guarantees return of invested resources.
There has been noticed tremendous improvement of safety in schools where some cameras were installed, and the process of installing video surveillance systems in educational institutions is just accelerating in many countries. The current systems are often extended and improved to meet higher requirements for better control of school environment and safety.
Professional video surveillance of schools - cooperation with city monitoring system. The most effective solution is combining of school systems with city system (especially the parts covering external areas). So far, such systems are still rare, mainly due to organizational problems. More on this subject in the article Video Surveillance of Cities
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