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WLAN, LAN

O konektoroch

WLAN konektory
Väčšina WLAN zariadení je vybavená konektormi SMA-RP, zatiaľ čo vonkajšie (externé) antény sú vybavené konektormi typu N. Pri použití koaxiálneho kábla H-155 je teda nutné jeden koniec ukončiť konektorom SMA RP (napr. E84565) a na druhej strane použiť adekvátny protikus v závislosti od použitej antény.
Krimpovací konektor
Skrutkovací konektor
Pre krimpovanie konektorov na kábel H-155 môžete použiť nástroj s kódom E8000 alebo E80001. Okrem nástroja však budete potrebovať aj spájkovaciu súpravu.
V prípade tenšieho kábla H-1000 je nutné konektor SMA-RP pripojiť pomocou prepojky s konektorom typu N (na kábel H-1000 nie je možné konektor SMA-RP namontovať priamo). Odporúčame Vám zakúpiť si priamo predpripravené prepojky (adaptéry) E83220, E83225.
Anténne prepojky E83220 a E83225 - SMA RP / N - s káblom H-155
Krimpovacie konektory
N Plug for H-500/1000 Cable (crimped)
N-socket (for H-500/1000, crimped)
Samčí konektor - E84715 |
Samičí konektor - E84310
Skrutkovacie konektory
N Plug for H-500/1000 Cable (clamped)
N-female clamped on H-500/1000 cable
Samčí konektor - E84717 |
Samičí konektor - E84322
Schéma ukončenia kábla. Po príprave kábla je nutné k vnútornému vodiču prispájkovať stredový kolík
Úloha konektorov vo WLAN systémoch
Objektívne údaje o kvalite konektorov je možné získať iba pomocou profesionálnych meraní s využitím veľmi drahých zariadení. Ale pri nákupe konektorov je možné kvalitu odhadnúť na základe kvality materiálov, vonkajšieho pokovenia a pod.
Najviditeľnejšou závadou koaxiálnych konektorov je ohnutie stredového kolíka. Skontrolujte závadnosť konektora po montáži na kábel. Často sa stáva že počas spájkovania dôjde k prehriatiu dielektrika, čo vedie k nesúmernosti stredového vodiča.
Pri montáži konektora so závitom, je treba dbať na to aby sa otáčal iba samotný závit. Otáčanie celým konektorom môže spôsobiť odpletenie stredového vodiča, čo môže viesť až ku kontaktu s obalom konektora a výraznému zhoršeniu prenosových parametrov.

Je tiež treba pripomenúť, že aj správne zmontované konektory poskytujú nominálne hodnoty parametrov iba po určitý počet cyklov pripojenie/odpojenie - typicky 500-800 cyklov. Ale nesprávne zaobchádzanie s konektorom túto hodnotu výrazne znižuje. Okrem toho, pri konektoroch montovaných na kábel je vhodné sa oboznámiť s presnými odporúčaniami výrobcu. Výrobca zvyčajne udáva miery a rozmery rezov jednotlivých vrstiev.
Aj najlepší konektor spôsobuje skreslenie signálu. Je preto treba čo najviac obmedziť počet prepojení na ceste medzi anténou a zariadením. Dobrý výrobca ku každé mu konektoru udáva dva dôležité parametre, ktoré definujú skreslenie signálu.
  • VSWR (pomer stojatých vĺn) - udáva aká časť energie sa od konektora odrazí späť do kábla. Typickou dobrou hodnotou pre signál 2,4GHz je 1,5dB a menej, čo odpovedá odrazeniu cca. 4% energie.
  • Vložený útlm - hodnota ktorá by nemala prekročiť 0,2dB, udáva množstvo energie, ktoré sa prechodom signálu cez konektor stratí (premení na iný druh energie - teplo) . Vyššie uvedená doporučená hodnota odpovedá približne 0,5%.
Connectors applied for antennas mounted outdoors should have adequate protection against water. It is a fundamental matter, because any drop of water which penetrates the line will cause that significant part of the transmitted power (even a few tens of percent) will be dissipated, i.e. turned into heat.
Generally, only N-type connectors meet the requirements for this kind of use - they have been designed for military marine applications. Unfortunately significant part of this type of connectors doesn't support the original norms. If the manufacturer doesn't inform that the connector is compliant to adequate seal or military norms like MIL-C-39012 (the products of renowned firms), it is recommended to pay attention to the rubber pad mounted between two metal washers. They are used to squeeze the isolator, to make it fit tight to housing walls and this way to block the access of water.
The rubber of which the isolator is made shouldn't be too hard. Unfortunately, it is impossible to estimate thread's tightness with a naked eye.
Improperly mounted connector may be the reason of large signal loss and problems with running the network. It is important to properly prepare the cable and mount the connectors. In the case of crimp-on connectors it is needed to pay attention on the size of crimping jaws, given by the manufacturer.
Clamp-on connectors, unlike crimp-on ones, are demountable, so the same connector can be mounted on a cable many times. Mounting clamp-on connectors may be difficult somewhat. Typical clamp-on connector consists of a pin, which is soldered to the central cable's wire, two pads, seal, sleeve clamping cable's shield to the connector, and a nut, which secures all elements.
Crimp-on connectors for H-155 cable. Proper performance of connectors influences quality of transmission link. During designing process of the antennas ATK-16 (A7124) and ATK-P1 (A7130), there were carried out tests with selection of different connectors; also the quality of work of different installers was tested. It turned out that in the case of coincidence of adverse factors related to bad quality of the connector and work, antenna's gain decreased even by 30%. Due to quality and repeatability, we have decided to use connectors manufactured by Unicon company, and the crimper E8000.
To show in detail where the problem is, we have reviewed 19 connectors and 3 crimping tools from our offer. Parameters of each connector have been measured - the results are collected in the table.
Connectors:
(all dimensions in mm)

Name

Code

Type

1

2

3

4

5

TNCRP socket

E84470

Import, gilt

7

5.84

5.54

1.16

0.3

SMA socket

E845601

Import, gilt

7.32

6.3

5.483

1.02

0.82

SMA plug

E84554

Import, gilt

7.32

6.32

5.457

1

0.86

SMARP socket

E84558

Import, gilt, panel

7.34

6.32

5.503

1.02

0.82

SMARP plug

E845651

Import, gilt

7.56

6.6

5.44

0.96

1.16

N socket

E84325

Unicon

7.56

6.26

5.527

1.3

0.73

N plug

E84710

Unicon

7.56

6.4

5.477

1.16

0.92

TNCRP plug

E84380

Unicon

7.56

6.34

5.46

1.22

0.88

SMARP socket

E84557

Unicon

7.56

6.34

5.46

1.22

0.88

SMARP plug

E84565

Unicon

7.56

6.367

5.46

1.19

0.91

SMARP plug

E845652

Unicon, gilt

7.56

6.393

5.48

1.17

0.91

Legend:
1. outer sleeve diameter
2. inner sleeve diameter
3. outer corps diameter
4. sleeve wall thickness
5. distance sleeve - corps; space for the braid

Crimping tools:

Type

Code

-1-

-2-

HT-236I

E8000

6.3

6.4-6.5

HT-336A

E80001

6.5

6.44-6.48

HT-336C

E8002

6.5

6.46-6.50

Legend:
1. hexagon size declared by manufacturer (+/- 0.1 mm)
2. hexagon size - measured

Polish producer of connectors - Unicon maintains repeatable mechanical parameters, thicker sleeve lowers the risk of deformation after crimp-on. In the case when outer sleeve diameter is smaller, it is required to use crimper with smaller hexagon size. The tools used by us have this size within 6.4 - 6.5 mm. Manufacturer's tolerance is +/- 0.1 mm. The achieved results show that differences in connector sizes exist and they should be work in during assemblage, however practical experience from crimping suggests that very important thing is right crimping technique.
Basically, there can't be cut too much of outer coating, because sleeve crimped-on braid itself is less stable, it can't be allowed for braid or shield to stick out from the sleeve. To have connection maximally tight, if it is possible, a fragment of outer coating can be left under the sleeve. Besides, that braid and shield, on which the sleeve is about to lie, should be in the best possible condition; if it is crashed or to short, the connection won't be solid. Due to the width of crimper's jaw is less than the width of sleeve it is possible to crimp it twice - on both ends. If we use single crimp, the sleeve should be crimped maximally close to the connector - don't crimp it in the middle or nearby the cable - such connection won't be stable.
We have collected the ways of mounting most of RF connectors in 1.06 MB PDF file here (there is a lot of well-understandable figures in; several useful translations: lutowac = solder, zacisnac = crimp, wywinac oplot = turn up the braid, wcisnac pod oplot = press under the braid).